I/ LIÊN TỪ CHỈ KẾT QUẢ (result)
1. SO + adj/adv + THAT + clause
SUCH + noun + THAT + clause (trong văn nói có thể lược bỏ THAT)
Ex: He was SO tired THAT he went to bed early.
It was SUCH a difficult exam (THAT) he knew he wouldn’t pass it.
2. SO + clause
Ex: It was late, SO he decided to take a taxi home.
3. AS A RESULT, CONSEQUENTLY có thể dùng để mở đầu câu.
AND, AS A RESULT được dùng để nối 2 mệnh đề trong một câu.
Ex: We have invested too much money in this project. CONSEQUENTLY, we are in financial difficulties.
His wife left him, AND/AS A RESULT, he became very depressed.
4. THEREFORE thường được dùng ở giữa câu (ngoài ra cũng có thể dùng ở đầu hoặc cuối câu)
Ex: We feel, THEREFORE, that a decision must be made.
II/ LIÊN TỪ CHỈ LÝ DO (reason)
1. SINCE/AS/SEEING THAT + clause (đứng trước mệnh đề chính)
Ex: SEEING THAT/SINCE/AS we arrived late, all the best seats had been taken.
2. BECAUSE + clause (đứng sau mệnh đề chính)
Ex: We couldn’t find a good seat BECAUSE all the best ones had been taken.
3. BECAUSE OF/AS A RESULT OF/OWING TO/DUE TO + noun/noun phrase.
Ex: We were unable to go by train BECAUSE OF the rail strike.
Many of the deaths of older people are DUE TO heart attacks.
III/ LIÊN TỪ CHỈ MỤC ĐÍCH (purpose)
1. (NOT) TO/IN ODER (NOT) TO/SO AS (NOT) TO + verb nguyên mẫu
Notice: trong văn viết (formal) không nên dùng (NOT) TO
Ex: We came to the countryside TO find some peace and quiet.
Handle the flowers carefully IN ORDER NOT TO damage them.
2. SO THAT/IN ORDER THAT + clause (thường dùng can, could, might, would)
Ex: He chose this university SO THAT/IN ORDER THAT he could study Physics.
IV/ LIÊN TỪ CHỈ SỰ ĐỐI LẬP (contrast)
1. ALTHOUGH/EVEN IF/EVEN THOUGH + clause (even though chỉ dùng trong văn nói)
Ex: ALTHOUGH/EVEN IF/EVEN THOUGH the car is old, it is still reliable.
2. DESPITE/IN SPITE OF + noun/noun phrase/V_ing
DESPITE THE FACT THAT/IN SPITE OF THE FACT THAT + clause
Ex: DESPITE/IN SPITE OF the rain, I went for a walk.
We enjoyed our walking holiday DESPITE THE FACT THAT/IN SPITE OF THE FACT THAT it was tiring.
3. HOWEVER + clause
THOUGH thường dùng trong văn nói, và đứng ở cuối câu.
Ex: Buying a house is expensive. It is, HOWEVER, a good investment.
It’s a big decision to make, THOUGH.
4. BUT/WHILE/WHEREAS thường dùng để nối 2 mệnh đề trong câu.
Ex: John is very rich BUT/WHILE/WHEREAS his friends are extremely poor.
5. ON THE ONE HAND/ON THE OTHER HAND dùng cho một cặp câu diễn tả 2 ý trái ngược nhau.
Ex: ON THE ONE HAND these computers are expensive. ON THE OTHER HAND they are exactly what we want.
V/ LIÊN TỪ CHỈ THỜI GIAN
1. WHEN/WHILE/AS/AFTER + clause
Ex: WHEN/WHILE/AS I was driving along the road, I saw a terrible accident.
He went out AFTER he’d finished work.
2. WHENEVER/EVERY TIME + clause
Ex: WHENEVER/EVERY TIME I see him, he’s driving a different car.
3. FIRST/THEN/LATER etc. dùng để giới thiệu những mốc thời gian.
Ex: FIRST he closed all the windows, THEN he locked the doors. LATER he came back to check that everything was all right.
4. DURING/ALL THROUGH/THROUGHOUT + noun phrase.
Ex: DURING/ALL THROUGH the summer we get a lot of visitors.
It rained heavily THROUGHOUT the night.
VI/ LIÊN TỪ CHỈ ĐIỀU KIỆN (condition)
1. EVEN IF/AS LONG AS/UNLESS + clause
Ex: EVEN IF you are born rich, life is still difficult.
You can borrow the car AS LONG AS you’re careful with it.
You can’t come with me UNLESS you promise to keep quiet.
2. WHETHER… OR NOT được dùng làm câu hỏi gián tiếp.
Sau giới từ và/hoặc trước động từ TO V chúng ta sử dụng WHETHER chứ không dùng IF.
Ex: I don’t know WHETHER you have met him OR NOT.
It depends ON WHETHER the government takes any action.
The organizers will decide WHETHER TO IMPOSE fines.
3. IN CASE + clause
IN CASE OF + noun (dùng trong văn viết)
Ex: Take this umbrella IN CASE it rains.
IN CASE OF emergency, break the glass.
VII/ LIÊN TỪ DÙNG ĐỂ THÊM THÔNG TIN HOẶC NHẤN MẠNH
1. BESIDES/IN ADDITION (TO THAT)/FURTHERMORE + clause (đứng sau mệnh đề chính).
Trong văn viết nên dùng FURTHERMORE. MOREOVER được dùng ở đầu hoặc giữa câu nhằm đưa thêm thông tin.
Ex: I don’t really want to go out tonight. BESIDES, there’s a good film on TV.
We are still waiting for the goods we ordered three months ago. FURTHERMORE, we have been overcharged for our last order.
This theory about the origins of the universe is new. It is, MOREOVER, extremely interesting.
2. NOT ONLY… BUT ALSO/AS WELL
Notice: BUT ALSO + noun/noun phrase; BUT + S + V + ALSO
NOT ONLY khi đứng đầu câu sẽ mang ý nghĩa nhấn mạnh, sử dụng cấu trúc này cần đảo ngữ cho vế NOT ONLY và vế còn lại sẽ dùng BUT + S + V + ALSO.
Ex: The painting is NOT ONLY valuable BUT ALSO a work of art.
She NOT ONLY writes novels BUT (she) lectures AS WELL.
The house was NOT ONLY large BUT (was/it was) ALSO modern.
NOT ONLY is the restaurant superb BUT it is ALSO expensive.
3. AS WELL AS + noun/phrase/V_ing
Ex: They robbed a bank AS WELL AS a post office.
AS WELL AS being sent to prison, they were fined $2000.
4. TOO/AS WELL/NOT EITHER thường dùng trong văn nói, và đặt ở cuối mệnh đề phụ.
Ex: They like Indian food. I like Indian food TOO/AS WELL.
They aren’t very generous people. They have NOT got any friends EITHER.